PCR Confirmatory Tests for Companion Animals


Cats and dogs are long known as “man’s best friends”, who not only serve as companions, but also provide other benefits such as guarding, hunting and herding. Besides, they are also employed to participate in many aspects of law enforcement, in rescue operations, and as helpers to people who suffer from various disabilities.

Pets are part of our family, we love them and we try our best to protect them from any source of illness. In line with that, VFAD presents our new PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) diagnostic tests for companion animals to provide accurate detection and enable pet owners to seek early treatment.

Test Codes
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)
Microsporum canis
Leptospira spp.


Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)

Route of transmission: Through deep bite wounds and scratches, and from pregnant females to their offspring.
Disease: Feline Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (FAIDS)
Animal affected: Cats
Symptoms: In the early stage of infection, cats may develop non-specific clinical signs such as fever, depression, lethargy, anorexia (loss of appetite) and lymphadenitis (inflammation of lymph node). Cats that recover from this stage appear normal for years until they enter the final stage of FIV, which is also known as Feline Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (FAIDS). At this stage, cats may develop opportunistic infections of the eyes, skin, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract and respiratory tract.

gingivitis cat

Gingivitis in cat infected with FIV
Photo source: Ward Jr, EE


Microsporum canis

Route of transmission: Direct contact with infected animals
Disease: Dermatophytosis (Ringworm)
Animals affected: Cats and dogs, also humans (zoonotic)
Symptoms in cats: Focal alopecia, scaling, and crusting around the ears and face or on the extremities.
Symptoms in dogs: Classically alopecic (hair thining), scaly patches with broken hairs, regional or generalized folliculitis (inflammation of hair follicles) and furunculosis (furuncles on skin) with papules and pustules.
Symptoms in humans: Microsporum canis hydrolyze the keratinized structures of hair and skin, causes circular patches of baldness on hair and ring-shaped, scaly and crusted lesion on skin.

m canis all

From left to right: Microsporum canis in cat, dog and human.
Photo source: Mederle, N, Darabus, GH, Morariu, S, Oprescu, I, Indre, D, and Balint, A; http://www.dogchatforum.com/ringworm-in-dogs.htm


Leptospira spp.

Route of transmission: Direct expose abraded skin with infected urine or contaminated water, bite wounds, reproductive secretions, and consumption of infected tissues.
Disease: Leptospirosis
Animals affected: All mammals included humans
Symptoms in dogs: In the early stage of infection, dogs develop symptoms such as fever, depression, lethargy (weak), anorexia (loss of appetite), arthralgia (pain in the joints) or myalgia (muscular pain), and oculonasal discharge (discharge from the eyes and nose), followed by vomiting, dehydration, jaundice, kidney failure and death.
Symptoms in humans: Fever, headaches, rash, ocular pain (eye pain), myalgia (muscular pain), malaise, liver failure, kidney failure and death.

lepto dog

From left to right: Dog infected with Leptospira spp., icteric condition of the mucous membrane and foot pad
Photo source: Khan, S.A., Hassan, M.M. and Yasin,, G