FAQ

What is VETLAB® Reporting System (VRS) Online? How do I sign up for an account?


VETLAB® Reporting System (VRS) Online is an online reporting system where our clients can log in and view their test reports. Results are available as soon as testing is completed.

To sign up for a new account, please contact our Customer Service Officer or call us at 03-78736405 for assistance.

How do I access VRS Online to check e-report?

Here is a step by step guide for you to view your e-report through VRS online.

How do I open an account with VFAD?


Fill up the New Account & Revision Form and Letter of Guarantee and send the completed forms to us.

What is the turn-around-time of the tests?


Test results will be delivered within seven (7) working days.
10% surcharge is applicable for urgent results.

Can I use the same serum specimens to run more than one test?


Yes, the same serum specimens can be used for multiple tests (e.g. NDV, IBV and IBDV) as long as there is sufficient volume. Please send a minimum of 0.5 ml for each serum specimen.

What do cfu/ml or cfu/g mean?


In microbiology, colony-forming unit (cfu) is a measure of viable bacterial or fungal numbers. Unlike direct microscopic counts where all cells, dead and living, are counted, cfu measures viable cells. For convenience the results are given as cfu/ml (colony-forming units per milliliter) for liquids, and cfu/g (colony-forming units per gram) for solids.

What are the choices of antibiotic discs used for antimicrobial sensitivity/susceptibility test?


Ampicillin, Cephalexin, Ciprofloxacin, Colistin, Doxycycline, Florfenicol, Fosfomycin, Kanamycin, Norfloxacin, Tetracycline, etc. (*30 types of antibiotics available).

*please ask for the availability of preferred antibiotics

What is Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)? What is the difference between conventional and real-time PCR?


Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a powerful tool in diagnostics used to detect infectious diseases as it is very sensitive and specific. It can amplify a single DNA molecule to millions of DNA/RNA molecules in a very short time. PCR can selectively amplify a particular segment of DNA/RNA even with the presence of other DNA from different organisms.

Conventional PCR
• End-point analysis, extra step is required to determine the presence of target DNA
• Non-automated
• Takes 2 to 4 hours
• Less sensitive

Real Time PCR
• Real time detection, enzymatic PCR process and detection of PCR product occur in the same reaction vessel
• Automated
• Takes less than 1 hour, less time consuming
• More sensitive

What is the difference between LC-MS/MS and ELISA methods?


LC-MS/MS
• Confirmative test – specific identification of precursor and daughter ions
• Used for identification and quantification
• Identification based on targeted molecule(s)

ELISA
• Non-confirmative/screening test – detection of antigen
• Usually used for monitoring purposes
• Identification based on optical density

How do I convert parts-per notation units to commonly used metric units?

Parts-per notation
In weight
In volume
Parts per trillion (ppt)
Parts per billion (ppb)
Parts per million (ppm)
Parts per thousand = ‰
Parts per hundred (pph) = %
ng/kg = pg/g
µg/kg = ng/g
mg/kg = µg/g
g/kg = mg/g
%(w/w) = g/100g
ng/l = pg/ml
µg/l = ng/ml
mg/l = µg/ml
g/l = mg/ml
%(w/v) = g/100ml